İstanbul

Although it is not the capital , İstanbul is the largest city in Turkey as the leading industrıal,commercial and cultural center.The city is situated on both sides of the bosphorus,the strait that seperates Europe to Asia.Istanbul province is bounded in the North black sea,in east by Kocaeli Province ,in the southwest Marmara Sea and in the east by Tekirdag province.

History of İstanbul

According tp Strabo,İstanbul is thought to have been founded by the colonists from Megara led by Byzas in 7BC.The popular legend has it Megarians,before coming here,went to oracle in Delphi and asked his instructıon about the place to found their settlement.The answe was opposite the city of blind.When they cameto peninsula of old city,after seeing an earlier settlement in Asian side,they concluded that these people must be blind not to see such a beatiful place here on this side.And remembering the words of the Delphic oracle,founded their city Byzantium which derived from their leaders name Byzas.

Over the next thousand years,Byzantium become a trade and commerce center.But despite great prosperity,Byzantium never distinguished itself culturally,as did so many contemporary cities in Anatolia.

In 324AD. Constantine I defeated Licinius and became sole ruler of Roman Empire.He also began to built a new capital Byzantium,later named Costantionople.

In 330 AD,Christanity was declared the offical religion capital of the Byzantine Empire and splendidly rebuilt by Constantinople I.

Constantinople itself was not nly the new capital of the empire but also symbol of the cristian triumph.

İstanbul is famous as one of the most often besieged citeis in the world.Before it was conqured  by Turks,its aassailants inclued by Persian Darius(513 BC),The Athenian Alcibiades(408 BC),THE Macedonıan Philip II (813-913 AD)),The Arabs(673-78-717-18AD)The Bulgarians,(813-913AD)    and the armies of the fourth Crusade,which twice succeeded in taking the city (1203,1204AD)which twice succeeded in taking city (1203-1204 AD) Constantinople WAS TAKEN BY The Turk in 1453AD.THE CİTY BECAME THE CAPİTAL OF Ottoman Empire until 1923,when the newly founded Turkish Republic declared Ankara(than angora)the capital.From 1918 until 1923 Great Britian,France and Italy occupied the city.

Under the Ottomans ,the city went through several name changes,among them Konstantiniyye,Polis,Stimpol,Estanbuş,Istanbol.The name was officially changed to İstanbul in 1930.